Muslims in an Islamic state have certain rights towards their government. These rights may be summarized as follows:
This entails that every person is to be given his fair treatment in the Islamic society. All individuals who are entitled for specific rights must be given their due rights. All individuals who are required to perform certain duties must be treated fairly and without any bias. Responsibilities among individuals must also be distributed justly and fairly. No individual, class or category of people, or section of the society must be given any priority or preference over the others. Allah says in the Glorious Quran:
( O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to AllÃ¢h, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, AllÃ¢h is a Better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you may avoid justice, and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily, AllÃ¢h is Ever Well ÂAcquainted with what you do
And Allah's Messenger said:
The most beloved to Allah on the Day of Requital, and the closest to Him is a just ruler/governor . And the most hateful to Allah and the most distant from Him is an unjust and tyrant ruler.
People have the right to be consulted on issues that concern their economic and social affairs. This process of consultation should be done in an ordinary form. The public must be given the opportunity to express their viewpoints and ideas concerning issues related to the Islamic community and society. Such viewpoints may be accepted if they serve public interest. Allah says in the Glorious Quran:
And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah's) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs.
On many occasions Allah's Messenger , followed the advice of his companions. During the Battle of Badr one of his Companions suggested to change the site of the Muslims' fighting camp. One of the Muslims asked the Messenger during the Battle,
"O Prophet of Allah! Is this a place that Allah commanded you to camp at, and we have no choice of changing it, or is it a war strategy and plan? Allah's Messenger replied promptly, "No. Rather it is my war strategy.' The man who asked, suggested, " O Prophet of Allah! This is not the right choice of place for the fighting camp. Let us search for the closest water reservoir to our enemies and camp there. We should bury all other water resources then build a basin or a water reservoir for our party. When the battle starts we will have access to water but our enemies will not. Thus we'll be able to drink and use the available water while our enemies would not; Allah's Messenger commented, "You have certainly given the best advice.
The basis for the Islamic ruling and legal judgments is Shari'ah, Islamic law. The constitution of a Muslim State must be based on Qur'an and Sunnah, which are the agreed upon Islamic judicial sources. There should be no room for personal opinion if an authenticated text is available. Islamic law is a comprehensive system of jurisprudence including personal and family law, criminal law, national and international law, which fulfills all requirements of man in the most upright manner since it is based upon the revelations from Allah to His Messenger for the guidance of man.
A Muslim governor must not be aloof and distant from his people nor assign middle-men who are partial permitting some to see the governor, while preventing others. This is based on the instructions of Allah's Messenger :
Whosoever is entrusted with leadership over Muslims' affairs, yet hides away from them and does not respond to their needs, Allah would not respond to the supplications of such a governor on the Day of Requital, causing him to suffer from his own poverty and need.
A Muslim ruler must be kind and merciful to his people never overburdening them beyond their abilities. He must faciltate all means for his people to live and survive in the society in the best possible manner. A Muslim governor must treat an elder man like a father, a youngster like a son and a person of equal age as a brother. A Muslim governor must be respectful to the elders, kind, merciful to the youngsters, and considerate to individuals of his age group. The Glorious Qur'an informs us about the characteristics of Allah's Messenger who was the first leader of the Muslim Nation:
Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He is deeply concerned about you.
Allah's Messenger , also advised:
Those who are merciful [and kind to one another] may Allah be Merciful [and kind] to them. Be merciful to people on earth, Allah will be merciful to you.
Omar bin al Khattab the second Muslim Caliph, was so concerned about his responsibility before Allah that once he said, "By Allah! Had a female mule tripped in Iraq, I would be afraid that I would be asked about it by Allah [on the Day of Requital]" O Omar! Why did you not pave the way for the she mule.