(Hisbah) Accountability System in Islam

Hisbah is the voluntary accountability system in Islam whereby a Muslim enjoins good and forbids evil to enforce the laws of Shari'ah and to discipline those who publicly commit sins, do shameful acts and practice immoral activities, such as selling, promoting, and trading with illegal items, monopolization of basic needs of the people, cheating and many other illegal activities. This is done to implement the command of Allah in the Glorious Quran:

You are the best of Peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.
(3:110)

According to this system investigators and inspectors monitor voluntarily the public law and order situation and the maintenance of public facilities to protect the individuals against physical injuries in public places.

A Muslim should fear accountability and the punishment of Allah . Many examples of those who proceeded before us are mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an:

Curses were pronounced by the tongue of David and of Jesus, the son of Mary, on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses. They did not forbid one another from the iniquity: evil indeed were the deeds which they did.
(5:78-79)

In the light of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah every individual in the Islamic society is required to take an active role in the duty of Hisbah according to his abilities. The Messenger of Allah said:

Whosoever from among you sees an evil act, must change [stop] it with his hand. If he cannot, he should stop it with his tongueif he cannot then he should abhor it in his heart, and that is the weakest [level] of faith.
Muslim, Hadith no. 78.

Correcting any criminal act or vice is not allowed if this causes more harm than good and amounts to making the situation worse. One must use wisdom and discretion in enjoining good and forbidding evil.

The Messenger of Allah Muhammad articulates human rights in a single eloquent sentence:

Truly, your blood, your wealth and your honor are sacred to one another like this sacred Day, in this sacred Month and in this sacred town.
Bukhari, Hadith no. 105.

Most of the human rights mentioned in declarations fall under the above statement, which was delivered in the Farewell Pilgrimage speech of the Messenger of Allah to the largest gathering of Muslims at that time. The laws and regulations of Islam were legislated to preserve and defend the rights and deal sternly with violators.